Thermal Hazards Assessment (Allentown Lab)
Intertek Allentown provides hazards analysis of reactive systems, an essential tool to ensure safety prior to process operations
The hazards analysis of reactive systems is an essential tool to ensure safety prior to process operations.
The Allentown lab has thermal hazards testing capabilities that include four techniques: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermal Screening Unit (TSU), Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC), and OmniCal Chemical Reactivity Calorimeter (CRC).
Thermal hazards assessment has been used by our analytical experts to help solve technical questions such as assessment of thermal hazards for reactors and storage tanks, determination of onset and TMR (time to maximum rate) of thermal runaway, the designof relief valve sizing based on the decomposition profile and gas production, and thermodynamic and kinetic calculations.
Whether a product is thermally unstable or represents a potential thermal run away must be determined at early stage using small amounts of substance. Depending on requirements and circumstances, individual technique or combination of multiple techniques can provide the necessary data for assessing the potential risk.
|TECHNIQUE||SAMPLE SIZE||RUN DURATION||PRESSURE DATA||OFFGAS ANALYSIS|
|DSC||1-10 milligrams||~ 1 hour||no||no|
|TSU||< 5 grams||Several hours||yes||yes|
|ARC||< 5 grams||2-4 days||yes||yes|
|CRC||<5 milliliters||Several hours||yes (for pressure cell)||yes|
- Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC): Initial thermal hazard screening tool and rapid investigation of thermally hazardous substances. Temperature range: -150°C to 500°C. Small amount of sample: 1 - 10 mg. Instrumentation: 2920 DSC, Q2000 and Q200 DSC (TA instruments)
- Thermal Screening Unit (TSU): Like the DSC, TSU is another screening tool for thermal hazard and generally used in a dynamic heating mode, with heating rates on the order of 1-2°C/min. Endothermic/exothermic processes and pressure data can be determined from room temperature to 400°C. Sample size 2-5 grams. Instrument: H.E.L TSU
- Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC): ARC is an adiabatic calorimeter that offers full characterization of thermally hazardous substances. Runway exotherms along with pressure changes are monitored throughout the heating and cooling. ARC has stirring and injection capability and can run samples that are air sensitive. Offgas collection and headspace analysis can be performed. Uses 10ml sample cell (Stainless Steel, Hastelloy,Titanium etc. ) Sample size: 4 - 5 grams
- OmniCal Chemical Reactivity Calorimeter (CRC): CRC can determine heat of reaction, heat of mixing and heat of adsorption with multiple injections and stirring capability. The typical cells are 16 mL glass vials with septum caps. Hastelloy C cells are also available use with processes which can generate a significant amount of pressure. Temperature range is 0°C to 160°C.
Intertek Allentown is an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory that works with clients around the world. As part of the global Total Quality Assurance laboratory network, we can access additional world-class expertise and resources to support client needs.
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