ASTM D2395: Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
Standard: ASTM D2395 – Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
Certification Required: N/A
Scope: Per ASTM D2395: "These test methods cover the determination of the density and specific gravity (relative density) of wood and wood-based materials to generally desired degrees of accuracy and for specimens of different sizes, shapes, and moisture content conditions."
Applicable Products: Wood and wood-based materials
Test Procedure: The following test procedures are defined within ASTM D2395:
- Method A -Volume by Measurement: The length, width and thickness of the specimen are measured. The initial mass is then taken before oven-drying. After the specimen is oven-dried the mass is again taken and the moisture content is determined.
- Method B -Volume by Water Immersion: The initial mass of the specimen is measured. The specimen is submerged in a tank with a known volume of water and the change in volume of water is recorded. The volume of the specimen is equal to the volume of water displaced.
- Method C -Flotation Tube: A specimen is placed in a slender cylinder filled with water and allowed to float in as near a vertical position as possible. The length of the submerged portion of the specimen is recorded and the moisture content is determined.
- Method D -Forstner Bit: A volume of specimen material is collected by boring a hole into the wood with a Forstner-type bit. The diameter of the bit and depth of the hole are measured and used to calculate the volume of the specimen. The initial mass of the specimen and chips are recorded before oven drying. The oven-dry mass is then recorded and the moisture content id determined.
- Method E -Increment Cores: A core sample is taken from a larger member using a standard increment borer. The volume of the core is calculated and the initial mass is measured. The specimen is dried in an oven and the oven-dry mass is measured. The moisture content is determined after oven-drying.
- Test Method F -Chips: The initial mass of the chips is recorded. The chips are then submerged in water for at least 1 hour and are then placed in a centrifuge. A container holding enough water to submerge the chip holder is placed on a balance. The chip holder is submerged in the container and the balance is tared. The chips are added to the holder and the weight on the balance represents the volume of water equal to the volume of chips. An oven is used to obtain the oven-dry mass of the chips and the moisture content of the dried chips is taken.
- Test Method G -Full-Size Members: The length, width, and thickness of the specimen is recorded to determine the volume. The initial mass is recorded and the specimen is then dried in an oven. The oven-dry mass is recorded and the moisture content is determined.
End Result: These tests result in the density and specific gravity values.
Special Notes: N/A
Intertek Testing Locations: York, PA