Biotechnology encompasses diverse technologies like recombinant DNA and CRISPR/CAS9, with applications spanning medicine, agriculture, and more. While offering significant benefits, it also poses risks recognized since the 1970s, leading to the establishment of regulatory guidelines like the NIH Guidelines in the US and the Human Pathogens and Toxins Regulations in Canada. This white paper focuses on industrial applications of biotechnology using microorganisms, but also includes discussion on medical applications and agricultural applications. The scope of the paper is limited to the regulation of microorganisms.

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